Genotyping is the process of comparing the genetic make-up of an individual using a comparison sample from a different individual of the same or different species.
This work by revealing the alleles (alternative genes) an individual receives from their parents. One of the most common uses of genotyping is to gain insight into how variations of genetics can lead to phenotypic changes. Phenotypic changes are the underpinning factors leading to the observable differences between individuals, such as physical traits, or disease susceptibility. Genotyping can be used in forensics, plant breeding, and general DNA analysis, making it a valuable tool in the scientific community.
The exome is a part of every human’s DNA, making up 1.5% of the whole human genome. This small percentage is significant however, as all protein coding genes are found within the exome. Nearly all genetic disorders in humans are correlated directly to mutations within protein coding genes, which means using DNA sequencing to analyse the exome is typically the first order of business for a medical physician looking to make a diagnosis based on DNA sequencing. Exome sequencing takes less time than a full genomic sequence, making it one of the most affordable types of DNA analysis.
Genes are not static aspects of a human’s make-up and can be affected by a range of different factors that scientists are interested in studying. Things that affect gene expression include different life stages, different environmental conditions, or the state of the organism itself.
Laboratory experiments can extract mRNA molecules from an organism’s cells and sequence them. The set of genes that are transcribed under a condition is called a transcriptome, hence “transcriptome sequencing”. This type of sequencing can be used in the development of crops, and in determining underlying disease causes.
Genome sequencing is the process of decoding the DNA structure of an entire genome. This is significantly larger in scale compared to the exome sequencing we discussed earlier. Genomic sequencing can be used in a whole host of different ways, especially in wider data related research projects.
As with exome sequencing, genomic sequencing has significant use in the medical sector, giving patients insight into their own genetic make-up including physical traits, medicine tolerance, disease risk factors, and more.
Explore the World of DNA Health Testing
The world of DNA sequencing is constantly growing in scope and scale, and DNA testing can be a potent tool for someone looking to maximise their health using the best techniques modern science currently has to offer. Contact Edison Clinic to create your modern health plan based on tailored treatments and scientific data, and reap the benefits of modern science today.